Peter Damian was born at Ravenna in 1007. After completing his studies he began to teach, but soon abandoned this and entered the hermitage of Fonte Avellana founded by St Romuald. Once elected as prior, he promoted the religious life with such fervour that all of Italy was affected by the renewal. During calamitous times he helped the Roman Pontiffs through his works and writings and by various missions on behalf of church reform. He was created bishop and cardinal of Ostia by Pope Stephen IX in 1057 and took a leading part in church reform. An important theologian and poet, he died in 1072 and soon afterward was venerated as a saint. He was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1828. – CTS New Daily Roman Missal 2012, p 2572; Christian Prayer, Saint Paul Publications Philippines 1990, p 1084.